UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam Optional Subject consists of 2 papers. Each paper is of 250 marks, making a total of 500 marks.
PAPER – I
History and Problems of Philosophy:
Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.
Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.
Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.
Cârvâka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhaòginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
Schools of Buddhism: Pratîtyasamutpâda; Ksanikavada, Nairâtmyavâda.
Nyâya- Vaiúesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramâna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
Sâmkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation.
Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
Mimâmsâ: Theory of Knowledge.
Schools of Vedânta: Brahman; Îúvara; Âtman; Jiva; Jagat; Mâyâ; Avidyâ; Adhyâsa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.
PAPER – II
Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability.
Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism.
Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
Development and Social Progress.
Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment.
10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar
Philosophy of Religion:
Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
Problem of Evil.
Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
Reason, Revelation and Faith.
Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
Religion without God.
Religion and Morality.
Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Noncognitive.